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F?rat T?p Dergisi
2009, Cilt 14, Sayı 1, Sayfa(lar) 097-100
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Clinical and Radiological Effects of The Treatment Modalities in a Case of Arachnoid Cyst Rupture
Halil ?brahim SEÇER, Selçuk GÖÇMEN, Tufan CANSEVER, Metin KAPLAN, Engin GÖNÜL
GATA, Beyin ve Sinir Cerrahisi, ANKARA
Keywords: Arachnoid cyst, subdural hygroma, membranectomy and fenestration, cysto-peritoneal shunt, Araknoid kist, subdural higroma, membranektomi ve fenestrasyon, kistoperitoneal ?ant
Summary
Traumatic rupture into the subdural space without evidence of hemorrhage of the arachnoid cysts that localized in middle cranial fossa is a rare anomaly. We described the clinical and radiologic findings of a case 24-year-old man who was presented with a ruptured arachnoid cyst of the middle cranial fossa , and produced a subdural hygroma with trauma. Although arachnoid cysts account for 1% of all intracranial space occupying lesions, the association between arachnoid cysts and subdural hygroma is rare and only 23 cases have been previously reported in the literature. There are two procedures used in the surgery, the first is cyst fenestration and the second is a cysto-peritoneal shunt. In this patient although we applied all the possible surgical choices and we couldn?t achieve any slightest regression on radiological findings, the patient had full recovery clinically.
  • Top
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Case Presentation
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Introduction
    Arachnoid cysts are developmental anomalies described as intraarachnoidal cerebrospinal fluid collections. Arachnoid cysts represent 1% of all traumatic intracranial mass lesions1,2. Middle fossa arachnoid cysts are the most common of the arachnoid cysts, accounting for approximately 50% of adult cases, and 30% of pediatric cases and produce symptoms predominantly younger than 20 years male patients3-8.

    Although arachnoid cysts are generally asymptomatic, seizures, signs of increased intracranial pressure due to complications such as subdural hematoma, intracystic hemorrhages, acute cyst expansion and subdural hygroma. Neurological deficits, macrocrania in children and developmental retardation are the principal symptoms1,2,3,9,10,11,12,13,15. Spontaneous rupture into the subdural space without evidence of hemorrhage of the arachnoid cysts that localized in middle cranial fossa is much rare. We described a case with an ruptured arachnoid cyst of the middle cranial fossa thatproduced a subdural hygroma with trauma.

  • Top
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Case Presentation
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Case Presentation
    A 24-year-old man was admitted to the neurosurgical department of the initial hospital with sudden dizziness, nausea and vomiting since 3 days.

    In physical examination there were no remarkable findings, as well as his laboratory data. There were no neurological abnormalities. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large left-sided middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst (classified as Galassi type 2)10,16 and large subdural fluid collection isodense with the arachnoid cyst and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in ventricles (Figure 1). There was compression on the left side structures and lateral ventricles, and made midline shift.


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    Figure 1: CT that had been taken at the initial hospital showed a large subdural fluid collection isodense with the arachnoid cyst and CSF in ventricles. There was compression on the left side structures and lateral ventricles, and made midline shift.

    The patient underwent surgery and high-pressure gush of clear subdural CSF was released, a subdural drain which was removed after 3 days of the operation was inserted by two-left parietal burr-hole at the neurosurgical department of the initial hospital. In postoperative follow-up of the patient, there was no regression of the signs. The controlled CT imaging has been shown the brain tissue has not been expanded (Figure 2). Two weeks after the first operation the patient has been directed to us for further examinations and treatment.


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    Figure 2: The controlled CT imaging has been shown the brain tissue has not been expanded after two-left parietal burr-hole operation performed at the neurosurgical department of the initial hospital.

    At the time of admission to our clinic, the patient had a headache and sudden dizziness, nausea and vomiting were going on. Similar clinical and CT imaging findings have been detected as the first findings at the initial hospital. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) were performed consecutively. MRI showed arachnoid cysts on the anterior of left temporal region that is isointence with CSF, anterior of left temporal lobe was hypoplasic on the left frontotemporoparietal localization; a mass was observed which showed no contrast on the application of paramagnetic contrast substance and isointence with CSF and was separated with a cyst membran from the arachnoid cyst. There was compression on the left side ventricles and made midline shift. This lesion described was similar to subdural hygroma and arachnoid cysts (Figure 3). MR arterial and venous imaging showed no pathological findings.


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    Figure 3: MRI showed arachnoid cysts on the anterior of left temporal region that is isointence with CSF, anterior of left temporal lobe was hypoplasic, on the left frontotemporoparietal localization; a mass was observed which showed no contrast on the application of paramagnetic contrast substance and isointence with CSF.
    There was compression on the left side ventricles, and made midline shift. This lesion that was described was in harmony with subdural hygroma and arachnoid cysts.

    The patient again underwent surgery and frontotemporal craniotomy was performed. The cyst of hygroma was released with membranectomy and the arachnoid cyst wall was fenestrated into the basal cisterns. Follow-up CT imaging demonstrated a mass effect with midline shift and no reduction in sizes of arachnoid cyst and subdural hygroma (Figure 4). 4mg dexamethasone was administered four times a day for two weeks as antiedema therapy and the patient was followed up for one month in our clinic. At the end of the follow-up period, there were no changes on his radiological and clinical symptoms. So we decided a new operation and a cystoperitoneal shunt [Medtronic] with a CSF-flow control mediumpressure [40-80 mmHg] valve was inserted. Although mass effect with midline shift and no reduction in size of cyst and subdural effusion were found on post operative CT scans again (Figure 5); full clinical recovery has been reported after the last operation. No complications have been observed. The patient was called for evaluation 3 times in 3 months periods. The patient had no symptoms and was well but we couldn?t observe any regression in radiological findings at follow-up period. The CT imaging demonstrated a mass effect with midline shift and no reduction in size of cyst and subdural effusion (Figure 6).


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    Figure 4: The controlled CT imaging demonstrated a mass effect with midline shift and no reduction in sizes of arachnoid cyst and subdural hygroma after the operation of frontotemporal craniotomy with the cyst of hygroma was released with membranectomy and the arachnoid cyst wall was fenestrated into the basal cisterns.


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    Figure 5: After a cysto-peritoneal shunt was inserted, the mass effect with midline shift and no reduction in sizes of cyst and subdural effusion was found on post operative CT scans again.


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    Figure 6: The last follow-up CT imaging demonstrated a mass effect with midline shift and no reduction in sizes of cyst and subdural effusion.

  • Top
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Case Presentation
  • Disscussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Discussion
    Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid-filled collections that occur between two arachnoid layers. Although arachnoid cysts account for 1% of all intracranial space occupying lesions, the association between arachnoid cysts and subdural hygroma is rare and only 23 cases have been previously reported in the literature3,10,16-18,20-25.

    The association between arachnoid cysts and subdural hematomas was first noted in 197126,27. Although no explanation for this predisposition has been proven, theories have been suggested5,8. As arachnoid cysts are less compliant than normal brain tissue the amount of intracranial ?cushioning? during trauma is reduced with an increased likelihood of bridging veins to bleed. Alternatively, due to different composition of arachnoid cyst fluid compared to normal CSF, pressure may be transferred more readily and in magnified form which may lead to rupture of the bridging veins or of the vessels within the cyst wall26. In our case, the arachnoid cyst on the anterior of left temporal region ruptured and caused subdural hygroma with the trauma.

    Arachnoid cysts may rupture spontaneously or after head trauma. The rupture of an arachnoid cyst may produce the rapid onset of life-threatening symptoms. Therefore; a risk of spontaneous or traumatic rupture of arachnoid cyst should be kept in mind in all cases with arachnoid cysts, especially if there is suspicion of growth in size. If the cyst shows any growth, surgical intervention should be undertaken17.

    Surgery is generally recommended for symptomatic cysts causing seizures, hydrocephalus, raised intracranial pressure or focal deficits. Rapidly enlarging subdural hygroma and hematoma require surgical drainage10,15,28.

    Currently, there are two procedures used in the surgery; the first is cyst fenestration and the second is a cysto-peritoneal shunt. In patients without hemorrhage, either cysto-peritoneal shunting or cyst fenestration could be the choice. Yet in cases of intracystic or subdural hemorrhage, craniotomy with hematoma evacuation and cyst fenestration is superior to cystoperitoneal shunting10. In our cases, there was no hemorrhage; we performed the arachnoid cyst fenestration and cystoperitoneal shunt together for the recovery of the clinical symptoms.

  • Top
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Case Presentation
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Conclusion
    We concluded that; if the intracranial pressure is high, cysto-peritoneal shunting is needed in addition to fenestration. In this patient we applied all the possible surgical choices and we couldn?t achieve any regression on radiological findings, but the patient has full recovery clinically. In conclusion, despite applying all the surgical methods that has been described in literature till today and even though no regression on radiological findings can be achieved; patients may sometimes clinically get full recovery.
  • Top
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Case Presentation
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • References

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    11) Galassi E, Gaist G, Giuliani G, Pozzati EU. Arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa: Experience with 77 cases treated surgically. Acta Neurochir Suppl [Wien]. 1988; 42:201-204.

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    15) Raffel C, McComb JG. To shunt or to fenestrate: Which is the best surgical treatment for arachnoid cysts in pediatric patients? Neurosurgery. 1988; 23:338-342.

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    17) Cayli SR. Arachnoid cyst with spontaneous rupture into the subdural space. Br J Neurosurg. 2000; 14:568-70.

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    21) Gelabert-Gonzalez M, Fernandez-Villa J, Cutrin-Prieto J, Garcia- Allut A, Martinez-Rumbo R. Arachnoid cyst rupture with subdural hygroma: report of three cases and literature review. Childs Nerv Syst. 2002; 18:609-613.

    22) Kulali A, von Wild K. Post-traumatic subdural hygroma as a complication of arachnoid cysts of the middle fossa. Neurosurg Rev. 1989; 12:508-513.

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    26) Demetriades AK, McEvoy AW, Kitchen ND. Subdural haemotoma associated with an arachnoid cyst after repetitive minor heading injury in ball games. Br J Sports Med. 2004; 38:4-8.

    27) Robinson RG. Congenital cysts of the brain: arachnoid malformations. Progr Neurosurg. 1971; 4: 133-174.

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  • Top
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Case Presentation
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
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